Waste management is the disposal of waste material in a proper manner.
As the amount of waste is increasing day by day in most parts of the world. So the problem of disposing of waste is also increasing every day. Moreover if it is not properly disposing. Then it may effect our environment. And it can pollute air, water and land and lead to many health hazards.
“Clean environment or free from waste leads to healthier and wealthier lifestyle”.
Basically, There are three types of waste disposal:
- Solid Waste disposal
- Liquid Waste disposal
- Gaseous Waste disposal
1.Solid Waste disposal:-
It includes all types of solid material debris. So the various methods of solid disposal are:
It is very old method in which the waste materials are made reusable. Moreover, All the metal products have melted to make new products. Also this had done in ancient times. Plastic products have melted to make new plastic material. But glass and paper are 100% recyclable.
“when you refuse to reuse it’s the earth you abuse”.
It is the most common method of disposing garbage on land. Also, it is the cheapest means; because transport cost is only major expenditure. Moreover in a modern landfill, the solid garbage spread in thin layers. Also each layer is solidified by bulldozer. Therefore, sites of landfill have so selected that flood water does not reach there. Also underground water level should be low.
Compositing is process of decomposing solid garbage to make fertilizers. After that the waste has to be sorted; so that only things things have selected that can decomposed like paper, wood, leaves etc. However things like plastic, glass cannot be composted. So, the waste has layered in such a way that air can enter easily. In addition, a little water has added to the pile and is covered; so that heat and steam can decompose the matter faster. After about 3 weeks, Therefore it will have used as a manure.
In this method the waste burns so that it reduces in weight and volume. So about 90% waste will reduced. Traditional incinerators polluted the air by smoke and ash. But modern incinerators control this pollution with the help of filter bags, precipitator and wet scrubbers.
2.Liquid Waste disposal:-
Waste water can bring harm to the human environment. Therefore, it is important to treat the liquid debris in such a way that it cannot damage the environment. Firstly, in the disposal of liquid filth; the solid debris remove as solid debris has taken to landfill or by some other methods.
So, various methods used for liquid waste disposal:-
The process of dewatering can only be applied if the liquid debris is non-hazardous. During this process, the water from the liquid filth will have removed until only solid garbage remains. In this way we can remove the water wastes.
Sedimentation is another process to dispose of liquid filth . This method has used during the initial processes of sewage treatment. During the primary sedimentation stage, wastewater travels through large tanks; which have used to settle the ‘sludge’ as oils rise to the top and have then skimmed off.
This process creates hot gasses as well as an ash residue. The ash residue disposed of in a landfill site and, after treatments, the gas can be released into the environment. After the initial incineration process, the gas temperature had reduced; and it can then be treat to remove air pollutants.
3.Gaseous Waste disposal:-
Gaseous waste emitted mainly in the form of smoke. However these smoke has generated from vehicles and chimneys of factories. Firstly it is not easy to dispose the gaseous waste; Because After generation it directly mixes with the air. Although we can try to minimize it.
“don’t burn our future”.
Several ways to minimize its generation and proper disposal are:-
a. Tall smoke stacks:-
Smoke stacks should be high; so that the smoke released, boosted high into the atmosphere. However it is not a method to control the air pollution but going higher will dilute the adverse effect.
b. Electrostatic Precipitators:-
It is a device which has used to remove the impurities from air. It can be fix at the mouth of chimney or smoke stack of factory or thermal plant. So it can collect all the fine impurities from the smoke. Moreover it is a very costly device. But very effective than normal filters and precipitator.
In Conclusion of waste management:-
Therefore, for proper management of waste; combined action from everybody is essential. So It has to be a joint effort. No single agency or an individual can complete this task.
NOTE: hope this article will help you for better understanding of the topic. All the best!